The computer as well as it enters a major in many areas, which is a blessing from God Almighty. The computer entered all systems, including geographic information systems and their applications are:
GIS (English: Geographic information system) is a computer-based system that works on the collection, maintenance, storage, analysis and output and distribution of spatial data and information. These systems work on the collection and introduction, processing, analysis, display and output spatial and descriptive information for specific goals, and help planning and decision-making with regard to agriculture, urban planning and the expansion of housing, in addition to reading the infrastructure of any city by establishing the so-called classes LAYERS, we can this system of entry geographic information (maps, aerial photographs, visual space) and metadata (names, tables), processed (revision of error), stored, retrieved, inquiry, analysis of spatial analysis and statistical, and displayed on a computer screen or on paper in the form of maps, reports, graphics graphic or through the website To Ktrona.
GIS is a branch of science with other development to this day and is still evolving and increasingly important with increasing its capabilities and ease of access to information. Geographic information systems consist of basic elements of spatial and descriptive, computers and software applications and manpower information (labor) and approaches that are used for spatial analysis. We will focus here on some of these elements.
Spatial and descriptive information
You can get spatial information in many ways. One of these methods is called the initial information that can be collected by floor space, aerial photography – AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, and remote sensing and GPS. You can also resort to secondary information collected by the scanner, or plate numbering, or Orbiter lines automatic. Provide the map with additional information called descriptive information to identify the names of regions and give more details about these maps.
Computer hardware and software application
Represent computer-brain component of the GIS system, analyzing and processing data that is stored in huge databases. Store GIS data in more than one layer Tbakh- to overcome the technical problems caused by processing large amounts of information at once.
Many application programs dedicated to GIS, including information Mayaml directivity such as ArcGIS and working on cells such as ERDAS system information system there.
There are some open source software that simulates some of the GIS data. Of these programs, a small Quantum GIS program that allows the user to configure and create maps on a personal computer, and supports many spatial data formats such as ESRI ShapeFile, geotiff. There are also software other open source, such as: GRASS GIS, SAGA GIS, consists of any geographic information system of basic compounds, and these compounds can be Nstanottagha from « Puro » the definition of which the geographical information system said Abarhan organized group and arranged computer hardware and software and geographic information and human crew coach has to collect, monitor, store, and Astdaaoualbaanat and processing and analysis and presentation
Physical requirements of Funds
Technical Requirements Hardware and Software
Human requirements People
Operating Method Methods
Advantages of geographic information systems
Help new projects and expansion planning.
Help speed access to a large amount of information with high efficiency.
Help to make the best decision as soon as possible.
Help in the dissemination of information is greater than the number of beneficiaries.
The integration of spatial information and metadata information in a single database information.
Documentation and confirmation of data information and standardized specifications.
Coordination between the information and the relevant authorities before making a decision.
The ability of high spatial analytical.
The ability to answer queries and special place or descriptive information inquiries.
The ability to visual representation of spatial information.
Assimilation (Mahkah Simulation) for new proposals and planning projects and study results.
Models and patterns of representation of networks (land routes-sea routes-air routes).
Evaluate and monitor environmental protection.
Global navigation systems.
Evaluate and monitor mining and mining riches.
Water Resources (Kchavha-planning-administered).
Military exercises, radars and aircraft.
Production and modernization and deployment of base maps.
Electricity networks and applications.
Fuel gas networks Alaptzuly applications.
Water Networks Forum
Phone applications and services.
Special applications forests.
J application of transportation.
Private civil industries applications
Applications of oil companies.
Applications for real estate schemes.
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